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An Extensive Research on Healing Properties of Full-Spectrum CBD Oil
By Anastasia Myronenko

Anastasiia Myronenko

Anastasiia Myronenko is a Medical Physicist actively practicing in one of the leading cancer centers in Kyiv, Ukraine. She received her master’s degree in Medical Physics at Karazin Kharkiv National University and completed Biological Physics internship at GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Germany. Anastasiia Myronenko specializes in radiation therapy and is a fellow of Ukrainian Association of Medical Physicists.

An Extensive Research on Healing Properties of Full-Spectrum CBD Oil

alphagreen research on healing properties of cbd

Healing properties of CBD-based products finally start to gain worldwide attention. Many benefits of this natural phenomenon have already been identified, including anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antioxidant, to name a few.

Hemp markets are booming: due to the high demand for CBD oil – it is going to reach up to $44.4 billion by 2024. Each day, there are hundreds of Google searches in the UK alone on the health benefits of CBD, proper CBD dosage, and so on.

Meanwhile, natural medicine defies big pharma economics, as more people start to realise that the drugs they get prescribed sometimes may cause a bunch of side effects and damage their body even more than the illness itself. For that reason, more and more people turn their sight towards plant-based medicine with low toxicity, but high molecular complexity. And that is where CBD comes into play: a highly safe supplement of the people, for the people.

This article is dedicated to all-sided research of full-spectrum CBD oil and its health benefits. We will touch the matter of chemical compounds of full-spectrum CBD oil, briefly go through different types, as well as, define their advantages, and find out what dosage is the most optimal. Last but not least, we will find out what stands behind the legal status of full-spectrum CBD products in the United Kingdom. By the end of reading this article, you will have a deep understanding of the healing properties of CBD and other natural cannabinoids, and with clear vision decide which type of product suits you the most.

Taking into consideration that there is a number of controlled substances in full-spectrum CBD oil, we will make sure to provide you with the latest updates from governmental sources, so that you can be on the safe side.

Important note: We do not promote the use of alternative medicine instead of prescribed medical treatment by your doctor. We only highlight the benefits of CBD-based products as food supplements. Please, consider contacting your doctor for consultation.

So, before learning all the benefits of full-spectrum CBD oil, let’s start from the basics.

CBD and THC: the main compounds of full-spectrum oil

alphagreen research on healing properties of cbd

In addition to CBD and THC, it is estimated that the cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa, to be more precise) consists of over 400 chemical entities, of which more than 60 are phytocannabinoid compounds.

CBD and THC stand aside and form the most well-known pair. CBD was first discovered in 1940, while THC was found only 20 years later.

CBD is a short form for cannabidiol, a major constituent that naturally occurs in the cannabis plant. Medical marijuana is a great source of CBD, but this way of extraction imposes additional restrictions, and producers are obliged to follow medical and recreational laws. Because of this, all CBD products available for public sale are sourced from hemp.

Unlike THC or delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the primary psychoactive element, CBD alone does not contain psychoactive properties. Therefore, it does not have a significant effect on cognitive activity, or simply saying it will not make you “high.” Instead, it has a bunch of therapeutic benefits.

Interestingly, CBD and THC molecules are no alien to our body structure. Mimicking our endocannabinoids has an impressively long history in our evolutionary development: around 500 million years to be “precise.” Only in the beginning of the 1990’s, scientists found the so-called endocannabinoid system, which regulates the work of cannabis-like neurotransmitters. These receptors are present throughout our body: starting from skin tissues and finishing with bones. We also have it in common with the rest of the wildlife.

Endocannabinoid system is partially responsible for the immune system, pain-sensation, mood, appetite, cognitive functions and metabolism.

On a chemical level, the THC-like cannabinoids act on CB1 or CB2 receptors, whereas CBD-like cannabinoids have a little binding affinity, leaving their role in inhibition incompletely understood. Data suggest in vitro application of CBD inhibits signalling through GPR55 and TRP channel superfamily members and in vivo oral administration is dose-dependently reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine release. Along with other endocannabinoids and enzymes, they are responsible for their own biosynthesis, degradation, and re-updating constitute the endocannabinoid system.

THC can mediate the effects of the neurotransmitter serotonin by decreasing 5-HT3 receptor neurotransmission. This action contributes to the reduction of nausea. Synthetic analogues of THC are prescribed for the suppression of nausea and vomiting produced by chemotherapy. THC protects the brain from various neuronal insults and improves the symptoms of neurodegeneration. Like CBD, THC can offer non-ECS protection by a direct effect on neuronal cells, and non-neuronal elements within the brain. Mechanisms include modulation of synaptic plasticity, modulation of immune responses and the release of anti-inflammatory mediators.

Among other chemical entities of full-spectrum CBD oil, there are omega acids, terpenes and flavonoids. Terpenes, for instance, are known for their potential in treating cardiovascular diseases and even cancer.

A group of researchers conducted a study in 2015 and discovered that CBD has the capacity to make fractured bones stronger while they heal and thus not only strengthening fracture sites and making them harder to break in the future, but also speeding and healing the process itself.

CBD oil types – differences and peculiar properties

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To have a broader view of all potential of CBD on your health, we want to describe the three most popular types of CBD extracts available on the market. Each type has a specific extraction method that causes it to contain or omit certain hemp components. Some are extracted with a liquid solvent such as alcohol, natural plant oils or supercritical carbon dioxide.

Please, keep in mind that various options of extracts are not more or less superior but rather intended for different needs.

CBD isolate

If you strike for purity and the highest concentration of CBD – an isolated form of CBD is the right choice for you. During the extraction process, all components of the cannabis plant are removed, while CBD is the only “isolated” cannabinoid that is left.

CBD is considered to be an isolate when the concentration level is over 99.5 per cent. High-quality products can contain up to 99.9 per cent of CBD. Still, when looking at isolates, do not forget to verify the purity of the extract by asking the producer to show the lab tests, as it may still contain some traces of psychoactive THC.

Broad-spectrum CBD oil

Broad-spectrum CBD oil is perfect for people that want to use all the benefits of cannabinoids and terpenes as from full-spectrum but prefer THC-free options. As simple as that. During the extracting process traces of THC are isolated and then removed, while other compounds are still preserved.

Full-spectrum CBD oil

Full-spectrum CBD oil is a purified decarbonised extract, which contains a full range of cannabinoids, terpenes and essential oils. That all together gives a synergetic therapeutic effect. THC and CBD – the most well-known compounds in full-spectrum CBD oil that are praised for their numerous therapeutic effects.

When looking at other chemical components of full-spectrum, it depends on the raw material. Still, mostly it has a different cannabinoid profile and includes cannabinoids such as CBN (Cannabinol), CBG (Cannabigerol), THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) and some others in various percentages.

alphagreen research on healing properties of cbd
  • CBN (Cannabinol) is a byproduct of the breakdown of THC. However, it is not considered to have the same psychoactive properties as THC. According to some researchers, large amounts of CBN could be considered mildly psychoactive, but it is confirmed that CBN does not produce the psychoactive effects THC is famous for.
  • CBG (Cannabigerol) was first discovered in the 1960s. CBG is the precursor from which all other cannabinoids are synthesised. For that reason, it’s considered to be the “mother” of cannabinoids. This unique natural compound has enormous therapeutic potential and recently became a subject of great interest in the scientific world. CBG is considered to be the “Rolls Royce of all cannabinoids” as its production is pretty expensive and takes thousands of pounds of biomass to create a small amount of pure material.
  • Up until now, THCV or Tetrahydrocannabivarin was the most mysterious component in comparison to others mentioned above. It is non-psychoactive, and some researchers claim that THCV is associated with possible feelings of increased energy, euphoria and decreased feeling of hunger.

At the University of Buckingham UK, researchers conducted a double-blind placebo study, which showed that fasting blood sugar levels in mice, that had been given THCV, were much lower than a corresponding cohort group with no adverse effects on glucose levels.

We know what question you have on your mind: is there a possibility to get “high” on full-spectrum CBD oil? Full-spectrum products typically have higher THC levels than products with other types of extraction. Such products contain legally allowed amounts of THC (<0.2%), so you are guaranteed not to get psychoactive effects. On the contrary, it was proved that combined use of cannabinoids blocks the THC effect. Therefore, it is safe to use it on a daily basis. Moreover, the amount of THC component is so low, it barely has any impact on the perception of reality.

As you can see, each cannabinoid has a different effect on the body, and researchers believe that combining different cannabinoids can lead to enhanced benefits. Some of these compounds work towards the minimisation of psychoactive effects of THC and make the overall consumption more pleasant without distorting the reality.

What is the “entourage effect”?

alphagreen research on healing properties of cbd

The “entourage effect” is a reaction on a chemical level that happens when cannabinoids are present all together in the body. As a consequence, such a rich combination of chemical compounds enhances the beneficial effects. 

Two scientists from Israel were the first who described this effect. Shimon Ben-Shabat and Raphael Mechoulam wrote a paper in 1999 where they expressed their thoughts on cannabinoids from the hemp plant and the way they interact with our endocannabinoid system. It was scientifically proved that the combination of cannabinoids provides more therapeutic benefits than compounds being isolated from each other. 

Therefore, the so-called “entourage effect” makes full-spectrum CBD oil one of the best options for consumption.

The advantages of a full-spectrum CBD oil

There are several benefits that make full-spectrum CBD outstand in comparison with isolates and broad-spectrum.

  • It is essential to use the whole bouquet of natural compounds, as it produces a variety of additional effects.
  • Several studies claim that CBD has more potential when working alongside other cannabinoids and terpenes and loses its power, on the contrary, when isolated.
  • Thanks to aromatic terpenes molecules, full-spectrum CBD oil has a pleasant subtle flavour in comparison to tasteless CBD isolate.

Health benefits

alphagreen research on healing properties of cbd

When the inflammatory process inside the body continues for a long time, it may become chronic. As a consequence, such inflammation destroys organs and tissues by producing free radicals, and it results in oxidative stress. That’s how people get such diseases, as diabetes, asthma and cancer. Thanks to its antioxidant properties, full-spectrum CBD oil represents an effective potential treatment for many diseases caused by chronic inflammations.

In 2016, an experimental study investigated the potential of CBD in curing pancreatic inflammation in diabetic mice. After 10 weeks, the mice that received CBD-based treatment showed a reduction in immune-cell activity and developed diabetes later than it was predicted.

  • Neuroprotective effect

It was proved that CBD and THC protect against neural damage, and encourage the growth of new neurons. Such promising discovery means that CBD potentially can limit the progression of neurological disorders, such as epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease and many more. It was shown to be effective in an experimental model of Parkinsonism (using rats) by acting through antioxidant mechanisms independently of cannabinoid receptors. A recent large, well-controlled study of pediatric epilepsy documented a beneficial effect of CBD in reducing seizure frequency by more than 50%.

In 2014, the American Academy of Neurology published a review on the study that was investigating the use of medical marijuana (including extracts) for possible neurological clinical benefits. They found strong support for symptoms of spasticity-related pain, excluding neuropathic pain. They also reported inconclusive support for signs of urinary dysfunction, tremor, and dyskinesia.

  • Anxiety disorder

Globally, 1 in 13 people lives with a social anxiety disorder (SAD). Statistically, more than 60 per cent of CBD users buy it to weaken SAD’s disturbing symptoms. Recently received scientific data showed a reversing anxiety-like potential of CBD. Clinical evidence documented its value in curing some neuropsychiatric disorders by producing a calming effect in the central nervous system.

During one large retrospective study, scientists wanted to find out whether CBD can improve sleep and symptoms of anxiety. There were 103 patients under the observation with sleep quality and anxiety level documented every month. By the end of the research, 72 adults presented primary concerns of anxiety or poor sleep. Anxiety scores were reduced within the first month in 57 patients (79.2 per cent) and remained decreased during the study duration. Sleep quality scores improved within the first month in 48 patients (66.7 per cent) but fluctuated over time.

Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases. As per Cancer Research UK statistics: there were 17 million new cases registered in 2018. Nearly half of the diagnosed patients died the same year. Worldwide there will be 27.5 million new cases of cancer each year by 2040. The four most common cancers occurring worldwide are lung, female breast, bowel and prostate cancer. These four types account for more than four in ten of all cancers diagnosed worldwide. UK incidence is ranked higher than two-thirds of Europe.

When it comes to curing the disease, a combination of CBD and THC with conventional treatments may be the best synergy for cancer patients. It is known that some cancers are incredibly resistant to CBD and THC induced cell death. Cancer cells adapt and mutate to unbelievable extremes. Abnormal activity of midkine (the protein that fights cancer cells growth) and amphiregulin (another protein from the epidermal growth factor family) is able to block the anti-cancer effects of cannabinoids.

Chemotherapy and radiation can knock down this abnormal activity. That is why the combined effects of both chemotherapy and cannabinoids are critically important. In one case study, such synergetic power amazingly reduced the tumour to almost nothing.

  • Arthritis treatment

The lifetime risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis in adults is about 3.6 per cent. Under the highest threat is the group of people aged between 50 and 75 with women being more exposed to it. The disease is incurable, but there are some arthritis treatments that can slow down the progression of the inflammatory process.

Amongst those are so-called disease modifiers, which work in the form of gold injections. This method only reduces the feeling of swelling in the joint and is not considered to be fully anti-inflammatory. Even though it is considered to be an efficient way to relieve pain, it still helps only half of the patients and remains effective only in 5-15 per cent of them after the five-year use period.

A more or less successful method is joint replacement with synthetic materials: arthroplasty and hydroxylapatite – the types of surgeries that are also considered to be effective.

Another advanced approach in treating arthritis is to improve immune imbalance with drugs. The main aim of it lies in blocking cytokine production, and as a consequence, it leads to the reduction of inflammation.

In the case of CBD, this natural component of Cannabis sativa gives hope to those people in need. As for today, cannabidiol already gained a good reputation among many arthritis patients for its pain-relieving properties. According to the study published in 2017 in the journal Pain, CBD can prevent osteoarthritis pain and joint neuropathy. Based on the obtained results, researchers affirmed that CBD could decrease joint inflammation, as well as, serve as a protectant to the nerves. In addition, cannabidiol can also be used to relieve other chronic pains.

  • Might help treat alcohol addiction

As per World Health Organization statistics: 3 million people die from alcohol consumption annually. The harmful use of alcohol is considered to be the main causing factor of 200 diseases and injury conditions. Aside from physical harm, it also imposes a social and economic burden on society.

When it comes to alcohol detoxification, the main features of it include severe anxiety and the risk of seizures. This is exactly where a combination of CBD and a low dose of THC can help. While THC decreases anxiety level, CBD works as a natural calmer for the nervous system.

A new study done by researchers from Canada explored the potential of CBD in treating alcoholism. It is known that excessive drinking may cause neuronal inflammation and oxidative stress, which results in brain damage. During preclinical trials with animal models, they found that CBD is able to prevent neuron damage and reduce impulsive behaviour. Another challenge alcohol consumers face is liver damage. CBD has the potential to reverse the harmful effects due to its anti-oxidative effect.

Unfortunately, there are still no studies on humans available.

Unwanted effects of full-spectrum CBD oil

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Usually, people who are new to CBD-based products are concerned about its unwanted effects. It doesn’t matter what kind of product you consume; whether it is CBD isolates, full-spectrum or broad-spectrum, there is always a risk for some kind of side effects.

The only side effects that were identified are dry mouth, low blood pressure and feeling of apathy, but as it was reported later, they tend to disappear with time.

Generally, CBD products are viewed as being safe for consumption. All you need to do is just find out what dosage suits you the most.

Control status of cannabinoid containing products in the UK

The UK is the world’s largest producer of medical marijuana with a production volume of 95 tons per year, even though many restrictive regulations apply.

As Alphagreen is based in the UK, we will go through local jurisdiction regarding cannabinoids. Please, consider conducting proper research regarding the legal use of cannabinoids in your home country, as it varies from place to place.

General licensing principles

alphagreen research on healing properties of cbd

Most cannabinoids extracted from Cannabis sativa are listed as controlled substances in the United Kingdom Drug Abuse Act. Cannabis itself is a class B controlled drug listed in schedule 1 of the Misuse of Drugs Regulations 2001 and the Misuse of Drugs Designation Order 2015. Therefore, the legislative controls apply to cannabis plants cultivated for the production of drug material. Cultivation or possession of cannabis plants can be lawfully undertaken only with the requisite of Home Office License.

The Home Office considers licensing applications from companies and individuals in the UK if they plan to cultivate, produce, supply and import or export controlled drugs. Each application is considered carefully on its merits taking account of the ability of the applicant to comply with regulatory standards to be issued with a license under the MDR 2001. They also check whether the applicant satisfies the requirements of other regulatory bodies, such as the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), Food Standards Agency (FSA) and Trading Standards when deciding whether it would be appropriate to grant a license.

Home Office issues licenses for the cultivation of cannabis plants from approved seed types with low THC content for the production of hemp fibre for industrial purposes or the obtaining of seeds which are then pressed for their oil. For both of these uses, licenses are granted to enable the use of non-controlled parts of the plant (i.e. seeds and fibre/ mature stalk only).

What amount of controlled cannabinoids in full-spectrum CBD oil is considered to be legal in the UK?

alphagreen research on healing properties of cbd

As per Medicines and Health Products Regulatory Agency regulations: CBD as an isolated substance, in its pure form, would not be controlled, as it is derived from EU-approved industrial cannabis strains that contain minimal THC. THC, on the other hand, is a Schedule 1 controlled cannabinoid. Due to its psychoactive properties, THC is prohibited or restricted by the majority of countries. As it was mentioned above, in the United Kingdom, it is not forbidden, but only limited to a specific dosage.

To legally sell such substances, the producer must acquire special licenses that correspond to the medicines. This is the only way it can be legally sold, prescribed and consumed.

In the case of full-spectrum CBD oil, suppliers are obliged to openly state that their products contain controlled substances, such as THC, CBN and sometimes CBDV. Regulation 2 of The Misuse of Drugs Regulations (2001) states that if certain criteria are fulfilled, then up to 1mg of a controlled substance is allowed within a product container.

Let’s take an example – a 10 ml bottle of a full-spectrum CBD oil product, which contains 500mg CBD (5%). If the amount of THC in the product is equal to 0.2%, what is considered to be the limit, then it means there will be exactly 1 mg of THC in that bottle assuming the producer used precisely 500mg CBD extract. This product would be considered legal.

However, if the producer increases the concentration of CBD to 10% in a 10ml bottle, then it contains 2 mg THC at the concentration of 0.2%. It doubles the legal limit, and there is a high risk of being prosecuted if the authorities ever tested the product. For this reason, every honest manufacturer will always keep the proper dosages following the law requirements.

Dosing full-spectrum CBD oil

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We often receive questions from consumers regarding the correct dosage of full-spectrum CBD oil. Unfortunately, there are no established guidelines available, as the acceptance of therapeutic potential of cannabis substances is still in its infancy. That is why we cannot give you exact numbers. People take CBD oil as a supplement for a variety of reasons, so it depends on many aspects.

Moreover, doctors are not allowed to prescribe cannabinoids. As for now, they can only recommend it to their patients. This is due to two reasons: there is no recommended daily allowance (RDA) and no studies on CBD therapy available in medical schools, as their drug curriculum includes only patented substances.

What we can do is to provide you with some general information that may guide you in the right direction. The best thing you can do from your side is to listen to your body and consult a doctor.

What do you want to reach with full-spectrum CBD oil?

In order to find an optimal solution, define your goals. What do you want to improve by using full-spectrum? Is it for pain relief? Maybe you have some psychological issues that you want to take care of? Or you just want to consume it as a daily food supplement for nutritional value?

After all, shooting the right target is the key to successful treatment. We advise to calculate an approximate dosage with a doctor and track your daily doses with further adjustments in case it is needed. The dosage is influenced by many aspects, such as health condition, age, weight, metabolism, diet, genetics, product consistency and even environment. What is mostly advised for people new to cannabinoids is to start with a low dose and give it a try, then gradually increase the dose if needed and observe the changes.

We recommend starting with a small dose of 5 mg per day, just to observe your response to any CBD supplement used. From there, you can increase the pace to 2 daily doses of 5 mg. This is important because some people might still experience side effects. Although they are normally rare and tolerable, it is always recommended to start with low doses to avoid the undesired effect. Make sure to take the same dose for at least a few weeks so that your body has time to adapt.

At Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, one of the biggest non-profit medical and scientific research organisations, they suggested that cannabinoid dosages and duration of treatment depend mainly on the illness and some other factors.

The following list provides specific dosages that should be taken orally:

  • Eating disorder in cancer patients: 2.5mg of THC, with or without 1mg of CBD for six weeks.
  • Pain: 2.5-20mg of CBD, with or without THC.
  • Epilepsy: 200-300mg of CBD daily.
  • Movement problems (Huntington’s disease): 10mg of CBD per kg of body weight daily for six weeks.
  • Sleep disorders: 40mg-160mg of CBD.
  • Multiple Sclerosis (MS) symptoms: extracts containing 2.5-120 milligrams of a THC/CBD combination daily for 2-15 weeks.
  • Schizophrenia: 40-1,280mg of CBD daily.
  • Glaucoma: A single sublingual CBD dosage of 20-40mg (>40 mg may increase eye pressure).

In case you were wondering: it is impossible to get addicted to full-spectrum CBD products.

The consumption is considered to be non-toxic, even when consumed in large doses. There were no cases of overdose registered that could lead to serious health problems. According to the World Health Organization: even regular consumption of large doses is well-tolerated.

Conclusion

alphagreen research on healing properties of cbd

To draw a line in our research on full-spectrum CBD oil and its healing properties, we would like to highlight the main points that we already mentioned above.

Full-spectrum CBD oil is a rich source of CBD, THC and other natural compounds with great healing potential. It is scientifically proved to have anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antioxidant properties. 

There are a few reasons why full-spectrum outstands CBD isolate and broad-spectrum. First of all, the greater variety of chemical compounds provides more healing power. Secondly, CBD loses its potential when being separated from other cannabinoids and terpenes. And the most pleasant advantage: in comparison to other types, full-spectrum CBD oil has a subtle flavour thanks to aromatic terpenes molecules.

Most importantly, many people with different health problems can find a safe solution by using CBD oil. Arthritis, alcohol addiction, neurological diseases, chronic pain, cancer, depression – this is a short list of health issues that can be cured, or at least improved with the integration of full-spectrum CBD oil into daily consumption. 

Nature is the most trustworthy healer. A few drops of oil per day might change your life drastically. The only thing you need to do: consult a doctor and calculate an approximate dosage with further adjustments. Give it a try, and the changes will not be long in coming.   


Anastasiia Myronenko

Verified by a Healthcare Professional

Anastasiia Myronenko

Anastasiia Myronenko is a Medical Physicist actively practicing in one of the leading cancer centers in Kyiv, Ukraine. She received her master’s degree in Medical Physics at Karazin Kharkiv National University and completed Biological Physics internship at GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Germany. Anastasiia Myronenko specializes in radiation therapy and is a fellow of Ukrainian Association of Medical Physicists.

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