Cannabichromevarin or CBCV as an expansion of cannabinoids alphabet
Five hundred years ago, the famous alchemist and physician Paracelsus said that the difference between a medicine and poison consists only in its quantity. For example, the effect on a human liver of a bottle of wine or just its glass is very obvious. But in the medical society, sharp criticism and discontent can be raised while hinting that the situation is exactly the same with cannabis. First things first, let's take a look at the history of medical marijuana.
In ancient India and China, hemp was used as an indispensable cure for all sorts of diseases. Five thousand years ago, a Chinese botanist prescribed hemp to people with malaria, constipation, beriberi, and other conditions. Other Chinese specialists also widely used cannabis in their medical practice. In the West in the 90s, hemp was widespread in medicine. The plant could even be bought in pharmacies. However, such medication was costly, and that was the main reason why some patients decided to grow hemp at home - nothing difficult from the first view. However, when it comes to practice, it rarely corresponds to the theory. The main problem was that the concentration of the active substance in this plant is rather unstable, and after all, the dose of this medicine must be calculated very precisely.
With time, a lot of things have changed, and the majority of insurmountable problems at that time found their solutions. With current technology, it is quite easy to calculate the correct dose and to predict the effects of compounds may have on human health. To date, pharmacologists already know a more accurate composition of cannabis, although new compounds are still discovered and continue to impress us with their therapeutic benefits on the human organism.
From A to Z or how to navigate in the cannabinoids dictionary?
We all here are more or less cannabis experts. However, still, if we want to sort out the alphabet of all cannabinoids discovered for today and not get lost in the abbreviations, we should start with the super easy question - what is a cannabinoid? Without going into chemical details, cannabinoids are a particular class of compounds that occur naturally within the phytocannabinoids from the cannabis plant and endocannabinoids from the human body. When phytocannabinoids interact with our internal endocannabinoid system, they cause various physiological effects on the human organism. THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol) are the most well-known cannabinoids for today, and their impact on our organism is studied most, there are over one hundred other cannabinoids present within the cannabis plant. From the medicinal point of view, different cannabinoids have different therapeutic benefits for our health and affect our body in completely different ways.
What conditions can be treated with cannabinoids? As all the cannabinoids are different not only in the chemical formula but also in their effect on the human organism, each cannabinoid is unique in its therapeutic potential. The studies investigating various cannabinoids and their medicinal efficacy and possible applications are still ongoing. Nevertheless, the information that has been already obtained during the numerous studies and trials showed the whole world that cannabinoids as a group have a great promise within the field of modern medicine.
What we all know is that cannabinoids carry general analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the list of their therapeutic benefits isn’t limited to this. As the research goes on, scientists continue to reveal more and more specific applications regarding each cannabinoid. According to the results of the studies over the past decades, researchers claim that cannabinoids hold promise in the treatment of such diseases and conditions as:
- Parkinson’s disease;
- neurodegenerative diseases;
- gastrointestinal issues;
The list of cannabinoid benefits continues to replenish with the new properties, and based on the studies and trial held, research into cannabinoids as medicine of the 21st century is going to be exciting over the next coming years.
When coming closer to the cannabinoids “dictionary” or the list of the most common cannabinoids, their abbreviations, and properties, it's time to sort out what is the difference between all of them and how they can influence our health. Let’s check which ones are the most prevalent for today.
- THC-Δ9. The most well-known cannabinoid for today. This abundant cannabis compound is primarily “responsible” for such popular psychoactive effects of the plant and is the main reason for all the legality restrictions of marijuana use nowadays. When THC-Δ9 by smoking or ingesting gets into the human body, it binds with the cannabinoid receptors mainly concentrated in areas of our brain that are associated with pleasure, memory, coordination, thinking, and perception of time. The cannabinoid stimulates all these receptors to release dopamine, thereby creating the feeling of euphoria, relaxation, and other effects that we always associate with the cannabis “high.” Nevertheless, when most people think that THC is only a chemical making us “high,” it is actually a lot more complex than that. A range of different studies has shown that this compound may be used as a pain reliever, anti-inflammatory, and tumour growth inhibitor. While the studies are still ongoing, it is believed that delta-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol may be used as an active agent in the treatment of such diseases as:
- insomnia and sleep apnea;
- neuropathic and chronic pain;
- Crohn’s disease;
- appetite loss;
- multiple sclerosis;
- Alzheimer’s disease;
- THC-Δ8. Despite being similar to THC-Δ9, delta-8 Tetrahydrocannabinol has lower psychoactivity and has been found to bind with both CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors of our endocannabinoid system. As a result of such a difference in psychoactive properties, delta-8-THC is able to provide medicinal benefits with a mellower “high” in comparison to the deep mental stimulation that consumers get from higher concentrations of delta-9. Regarding the therapeutic benefits of this compound, it has been shown that this cannabinoid can completely prevent vomiting in children treated with various chemotherapy drugs.
- THCA. THCA or tetrahydrocannabinolic acid is a cannabinoid found in cannabis without psychoactive response. When being exposed to sunlight, heat, or time, a chemical process called decarboxylation starts, and THCA in the harvested plant converts to THC. During this process, the heat removes the carboxylic acid atoms. Such a transformation makes the entire molecular structure smaller and able to fit into the receptors of the endocannabinoid system. When speaking about the therapeutic benefits of THCA, we should mention one thing - tetrahydrocannabinolic acid is a superfood. When eaten raw as a dietary supplement, the compound has the ability to ease arthritis pain, relieve the symptoms of fibromyalgia, and other chronic conditions. Other health benefits of THCA include:
- anti-seizure benefits;
- neuroprotectant qualities;
- anti-inflammatory action;
- diabetes regulation assistance;
- appetite regulation;
- nausea reduction.
- THCV. Similarly to delta-9 THC, THCV or tetrahydrocannabivarin has psychoactive properties. At the same time, unlike delta-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol, the compound acts as an appetite suppressant and seems to increase overall energy that means that it may be successfully used in weight loss. THCV is a CB1 receptor antagonist that means that the chemical will bind to the receptor and activate the endocannabinoid system. It is a partial agonist of CB2 receptors. THCV is considered to be a more potent psychoactive compound in comparison with THC alone. It also means that the high created by THCV doesn’t last as long as the “high” created by delta-9-THC or delta-8-THC - it will disappear much faster. Besides the weight loss, health benefits of this chemical include:
- regulation of blood sugar levels;
- reducing anxiety;
- bone growth stimulation;
- tremors and brain lesions reduction.
- THCVA. While being the molecular precursor to THCV, THCVA (Tetrahydrocannabivarinic acid) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid. This compound may act as an anti-inflammatory agent and potentially help in immune system regulation. In addition to this, THCVA is one of the numerous cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant that drug testing can use as a particular marker to determine illegal marijuana use. Besides this, the compound may boost the immune system and work as a pain reliever. It also seems to be one of the possible anti-cancer solutions, although the research is still continuing. Some of the laboratory studies on mice and rats have shown that tumours have decreased in size when exposed to medical marijuana and its compounds. THCVA also eases gastrointestinal issues and has appetite suppression properties. This may help people to lose weight and treat or prevent such diseases as Irritable Bowel Syndrome or Crohn’s disease.
- CBD. The second most well-known cannabinoid along with THC for today is cannabidiol or CBD. CBD doesn’t belong to the psychoactive compounds, so it can’t impair one’s ability to think or function cognitively. This chemical is an excellent treatment for anxiety and depression. It also has anti-psychotic properties which make CBD a promising psychiatric alternative. Cannabidiol has a direct impact on the digestive tract and glucose resistance. These benefits make CBD being able to help people suffering from various gastrointestinal conditions as well as diabetics maintain healthier blood sugar levels. Among conditions that can be treated with CBD oil are:
- Crohn’s disease;
- Irritable Bowel Syndrome;
- CBDA. Cannabidiolic acid is the acidic “father” of CBD found in the raw plant. In a similar way to how THCA converts to THC, CBDA converts to CBD while being exposed to light, heat, or time. CBDA is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid and shows promise as an anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-nausea agent. It also has cancer-preventing and antioxidant properties, although it still is actively studied in different research.
- CBDV. Canabidivarin or CBDV also doesn’t have psychoactive properties and is most commonly found in indica cannabis strains with a low level of THC. Similarly to CBD, CBDV has a high potential to decrease the severity of seizures as well as their frequency. In addition to this, it may reduce pain, inflammation, nausea, and mood disorders. Also, CBDV may potentially help with brain function. Such a conclusion is based on some trials that showed mice were able to recover psychological and behavioural issues. Some studies also showed the possibility of using CBDV for muscular dystrophy, which may lead to potential treatments in the future.
- CBDVA. Cannabidivarinic acid (CBDVA), is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid. As well as CBD, it can’t influence our mood as it doesn’t have psychoactive properties. While acting as an effective anti-inflammatory agent, the cannabinoid may reduce pain, muscle tension, and stimulate the appetite.
- CBC. Cannabichromene or CBC is found in the cannabis plant in small amounts. However, even being quite rare, it is one of the most promising cannabinoids for today and is also currently being researched as a potent cancer inhibitor. This cannabinoid has been shown to bind to TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors, which are responsible for pain perception, making it a potent pain reducer. CBC also may have antibiotic, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties. Along with such cannabinoids as THC, CBD, CBGA, THCA, and CBDA, CBC enters the “big six” cannabinoids that have received the vast majority of research nowadays.
- CBCA. Being the parent cannabinoid to CBC, Cannabichromenic Acid or CBCA produces CBL, CBC, and CBLA when heated. Initially, CBCA didn’t show any valuable therapeutic benefits, although more recent studies have revealed its potential anti-inflammatory and antifungal properties.
- CBCV. Chromevarine or CBCV is the main character of our article and will be reviewed in detail below. It is a non-psychotropic cannabinoid and can be found in the cannabis plant in small amounts. The compound is believed to have antidepressant, analgesic, and anticonvulsant benefits similar to CBD, although more research is needed to reveal its full medicinal potential.
- CBCVA. Cannabichromevarinic acid occupies its place in the list of the major cannabis compounds without psychotropic properties. The range of CBCVA therapeutic benefits is wide as it has been shown during various studies to target the receptors in our organism that are responsible for sleep, appetite, and mood regulation.
- CBN. Cannabinol or CBN is a cannabinoid with mild psychological activity. Chemically, CBN is a breakdown product of THC and has got its popularity due to the potent sedative properties. Studies of this compound are ongoing, although among the conditions that CBN can definitely positively impact are:
- bacterial infections;
- bone loss;
- poor appetite.
- CBNA. Cannabinolic acid will not affect your ability to function and provide you with high feeling as it doesn’t have psychoactive properties. What is the connection between CBNA and other cannabinoids? When cannabis is exposed to air long enough, THCA gradually converts into CBNA, which in its turn can be decarboxylated and transformed into CBN. All of these compounds are very closely related, and this is one of the main reasons to study the CBNA’s properties more in-depth as currently very little is known about this cannabinoid. CBN has the ability to act as an anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial agent. It also appears to help with seizures and convulsions. While taking this into account, it is a logical conclusion to suggest that CBNA would have qualities or traits similar to its relative compounds.
- CBG. Cannabigerol or CBG is quite rare and is present in cannabis strains in small amounts. The chemical refers to the group of non-intoxicating cannabis compounds and is also known as the chemical “parent” of CBD and THC. CBG acts on specific cannabinoid receptors in our body and is beneficial in the following cases:
- Inflammatory Bowel Disease;
- Huntington’s disease;
- Stroke (acts as a vasodilator);
- Bladder control issues.
- CBGV. Cannabigerovarin refers to the group of non-psychoactive cannabinoids. According to the results of the studies, CBGV may help the human internal endocannabinoid system better bind with the THC molecules and increase CBD metabolism. In addition to this, CBGV is considered to be an effective anti-inflammatory agent, pain reliever, and cancer inhibitor.
- CBGA. Cannabigerolic acid can be found in the cannabis plant in small amounts and doesn't have psychoactive properties. CBGA is the parent of THCA, CBDA, CBCA, and the other acid precursors. Without it, none of the others would exist. CBGA is believed to have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-bacterial properties.
- CBGVA. Another non-psychotropic cannabinoid, cannabigerovarinic acid, or CBGVA is one of the main non-intoxicating cannabis compounds. Therapeutic benefits of this cannabinoid mainly include anti-inflammatory properties, which may be useful for inflammatory issues such as arthritis.
Even with such a long list of cannabinoids that are believed to have therapeutic benefits for our health, it is only a small part of all the compounds found in the cannabis plant. Besides the more straightforward navigation, the main aim of such a “cannabinoids dictionary” is to extend people’s knowledge about the most actively studied compounds and take into account other cannabinoids that may be used as an alternative to the hyped THC and CBD.
CBCV as one of the less-known yet potent cannabinoids
The marijuana plant can boast of a wide range of different cannabinoid acids in its composition. All these chemicals turn to cannabinoid compounds after their activation in most cases caused by heat. Cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are the most well known of them as we already mentioned above. Nevertheless, besides these compounds, the plant yields various other chemicals that may have therapeutic benefits. Some of them we reviewed in the previous paragraph, although researchers still aren’t sure exactly how many compounds the marijuana plant consists of. Based on the results of the studies, scientists claim their number is around one hundred. Each of these cannabinoids has a unique chemical composition and, respectively, unique medicinal benefits so can be used to treat absolutely different diseases and conditions. This is a unique feature of cannabinoids and the main driver for research and studies - all the compounds differ from each other.
Studies are continuing, and besides revealing new medicinal benefits of the marijuana compounds, they also show to the world new candidates into the list of the most promising cannabinoids that may substitute some of the modern medications forever. One of such compounds which have not yet put on a crown of popularity and isn’t so well known as others is cannabichromevarin or CBCV. Don’t let the lack of popularity mislead you as this cannabinoid shows great potential and has all the chances to occupy a place near CBD and THC one day.
The first question to answer is what CBCV is. The first mention about this compound was in 1975 when the group of researchers in Thailand isolated it from a cannabis plant. From that moment, CBCV history has begun. In comparison with CBD and THC, CBCV exists in the cannabis strains at lower levels that complicates the studies flow. This cannabinoid is related to cannabichromene (CBC) that also appears in smaller amounts than the two main ones. Despite the affinity to CBC, CBCV has a different chemical structure. The chemical formula of this compound is shorter and contains a propyl chain making CBCV a propyl cannabinoid. So, unlike its “sibling”, which has a pentyl chain, it branches off once again to include a propyl chain. The molecular formula of CBCV is C19H26O2.
Due to the restrictions in the amount of research conducted for CBCV and marijuana in general, to date, scientists don’t have a lot of information regarding the unique medicinal qualities of this compound. However, we do have some knowledge based on the results of the studies and can make a certain prediction regarding the CBCV interaction with the human body. As nowadays world cannabis science is gaining momentum and feels more freely, we can assume that CBCV could have some unique and valuable therapeutic benefits that should still take the time to discover and study.
As CBC and CBCV have similar molecular structures, they may also have similar benefits for our health. Chemistry states that propyl cannabinoids often work similarly to their counterparts, so there is a certain logic in this assumption. There could, however, also be a significant difference endowing each of the compounds with unique effects that you can’t find in any other cannabinoid. Two main examples of the ways how a propyl chain can affect cannabinoid properties are CBDV and THCV. CBD and CBDV have nearly identical properties, with CBDV specialising in specific health benefits. However, THCV can either enhance or dampen the effects of THC, as well as act as an appetite suppressant instead of a stimulant. So, for all we know, cannabichromevarin could have its unique potential — the science just hasn’t discovered it yet.
The next question is whether CBCV differs from other cannabinoids and if it does, then how? From the previous section, we figured out that even a small difference in the molecular structure of the compound can result in significant differences in the effects the cannabinoid provides.
Due to the lack of research of CBCV, it is still hard to say what makes CBCV unique from other compounds. This cannabinoid has a unique molecular structure, but it’s too early to draw any conclusions as some compounds with similar structures act similarly, while others demonstrate unique characteristics. If we compare THC and CBD that are the most common compounds in cannabis, we can say for sure that they act absolutely differently. We all know that THC is psychoactive and produces the high so loved by many consumers, while CBD is non-intoxicating and can even counteract the cognitive impact of THC dumping its effects. CBD is the compound that could be potentially used for many of marijuana’s medical uses. This is the main reason why CBD research has developed much faster than others, not to mention that CBD is also more likely to be legal. Such a cardinal difference between CBD and THC illustrates how different cannabinoids can be from each other. Based on such differences, some specialists advocate a “whole-plant” approach. They claim the varying effects of a plant’s cannabinoids balance each other and help substances derive from the plant perform better overall.
What about the possible medical benefits of CBCV? The first thing that should be mentioned is that studies are ongoing, and none of the effects was confirmed officially. As we mentioned above, researchers don’t know much about CBCV effects and its impact on the human organism. Thus, all that we can do for the moment is to make some educated guesses regarding its therapeutic potential.
CBC is believed to be a powerful anandamide (AEA) reuptake inhibitor. It has also been shown to have antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibiotic, and antifungal properties. According to the theory that CBCV may have similar medical benefits to CBC, it could potentially help patients without making them feel impaired, in a similar to CBD way. CBC doesn’t impact our mental condition as it is a non-psychoactive compound. It doesn’t cause a “high,” creative, and euphoric feelings, although it can still reduce inflammation, relieve pain, and improve depression symptoms. In this case, if CBCV provides similar benefits to CBC, these effects can be even stronger. Some researchers also assume that all of the cannabinoids in a cannabis strain work together to make the substance work more effectively. If the theory of the “whole-plant” turns out to be true, CBCV could play an essential role in helping other compounds have the most impact.
Assuming that CBCV could have similar medicinal benefits to CBC, it may help patients with a range of different health issues without causing intoxication. Among the diseases and conditions that could be potentially treated with this compound are:
- major depression;
- chronic pain;
- epileptic seizures;
- inflammatory conditions (such as arthritis);
- Crohn’s disease;
- Alzheimer’s disease;
- muscular dystrophy;
- Parkinson’s disease;
The list of CBCV potential health benefits impress, although great work still needs to be done to confirm these properties in studies and human trials. One of the CBCV’s effects that have raised a high interest among the scientific community is its applications for relieving seizures in children and infants. A group of researchers from the Regents of the University of California has obtained a patent on a new anticonvulsant drug for infants suffering from seizures. The medication mainly contains cannabidiol (CBD), although the patent mentions CBCV and CBC as potential components. The license doesn’t confirm that CBCV can be used for seizures relief, but it proves researchers have enough data to express interest in its possible anticonvulsant properties.
How does the system work and what method to choose for CBCV therapy?
What is the mechanism of the CBCV work? Similarly to all other cannabinoids, cannabichromevarin interacts with our internal endocannabinoid system by binding with its receptors. It doesn’t matter what method you will choose to take medicinal marijuana - in all cases it affects your organism working in this way. The endogenous cannabinoid system of our body provides highly specific chemical mechanisms enabling all cannabinoids to have the unique effects on our both physiological and psychological health. In addition to this, our body can also make cannabinoids of its own, called endocannabinoids. The specific receptors of our endocannabinoid system exist throughout the body. We have them in our eyes, brain, immune and reproductive systems. We likely have the receptors in other parts of our organism as well, and scientists still need to perform more studies and research into the endocannabinoid system to find out how many receptors we have and fully understand how this mechanism works. When people smoke, vaporise, ingest or otherwise use cannabis, cannabinoids bind to the receptors of the ECS and provide them with the effects of the particular compound, regardless of whether they are medicinal or psychoactive.
As well as other cannabinoids, CBCV could be taken by a variety of methods. Which of these methods will be the most beneficial for you depends on your health condition and personal preferences. The best way to choose the right approach for your particular needs is to consult with a doctor. Among the most popular methods of CBCV ingestion are:
- moking. The most common and traditional way of marijuana use is smoking. The main advantages of this method include quick delivery of the active compounds, thereby providing nearly instant relief for patients. Such a quick effect can be beneficial in the majority of conditions. However, there are also the downsides of this method. Among the main disadvantages of medical marijuana smoking is its harmful effect on the respiratory system and the smell of smoke.
- Vaporising. This method is similar to the previous one, although it includes the particular device releasing vapour instead of a smoke. In comparison with the smoking method, vaporising is considered to be less harmful to our respiratory system, while it provides quick relief as well. The wide choice of modern vapours allows consumers to choose vapes to use at home or to stop their searching on portable “vaping pens.”
- Topicals. Topicals are usually applied directly to the skin and are the best choice for various skin issues or localised pain relief. Today, consumers can choose topical products designed for their particular condition. A wide choice of different lotions, salves, ointments, patches, and sprays is currently available. In comparison with other methods, topicals may be easier to use yet less potent.
- Foods and beverages. Probably the most unique and interesting way of medical marijuana consumption is edibles. If you don’t want to inhale vapour or smoke, you can ingest cannabinoids and get all their beneficial effects in the form of edibles or cannabis-infused beverages. Such foods and drinks are easy to consume and allow you to measure the necessary dosages more precisely. However, as with any method, there is also a drawback - cannabinoids take longer to take effect.
- Oils. Another widespread method of cannabinoids use is consuming cannabis oils in the form of different pills, sublingual sprays or drops, and tinctures. In such a case, you can use a special device to spray the oil into your mouth, place the oil right under the tongue or take it in the pill form. All of these methods are relatively simple, so are most often preferred by either young or elderly consumers. In case of using cannabis oils, it is also quite straightforward to control dosages of active ingredients to small amounts.
Legality and side effects of CBCV or what remains in the shadows of the advertising campaign?
We all know that catchy headings and loud promises are a recipe for success, but a great part of essential information remains behind the scene, becoming a surprise for consumers sooner or later. The most controversial and undesirable questions regarding cannabinoids always refer to its legality, side effects, and psychoactive properties.
Most of the cannabinoids discovered for today have mild side effects or don’t have them at all. CBCV doesn’t have psychoactive properties as it was already mentioned in this review, so its possible side effects likely would not be as pronounced as those of THC, for example. Nevertheless, some users the compounds similar to CBCV have reported such adverse effects as:
- dry mouth;
- lowered blood pressure.
Some of these side effects might occur when using CBCV, so it may not be safe to drive or operate machinery after taking high amounts of cannabichromevarin. In general, marijuana is considered a safe treatment for most diseases but only on the condition that patients follow the doctor’s instructions. Aside from the psychoactive impact of THC and other similar compounds, research hasn’t found any significant adverse effects from cannabinoids use.
However, consumers should also take into account that the method of ingestion may also play a decisive role in occurring side effects. For example, smoking always has negative impacts on the respiratory system. This is one of the main reasons why most medical marijuana users prefer its use in the form of an oil, spray, vaporiser, or another method that doesn’t involve smoking.
Although all the cannabinoids are considered to be safe for our organism, it is still desirable to avoid taking them in case of breastfeeding or pregnancy as there hasn’t yet been much research on this topic, especially in regards to CBCV. Patients with Parkinson’s disease should also be careful as high doses of CBD have been found to worsen the symptoms in some people. To maximally protect yourself and avoid all possible side effects, it is highly recommended to consult a doctor before including CBCV or any other cannabinoid in your treatment.
Another thorny question regarding cannabinoids use in medicine is their legality. What does modern law say about CBCV? Currently, there are no laws specific to CBCV, although there are more than enough rules and restrictions regarding marijuana, CBD, and THC use. Today, all forms of weed and cannabinoids are still illegal under federal law, although in many states, they are now legal for medical use with a doctor’s prescription. Moreover, in some states, marijuana is legal for recreational use. Despite the fact that CBCV is not psychoactive, it’s still illegal under federal law, as well as in states that do not have a legal cannabis program yet. The question of marijuana legality is very controversial as there are contradictions between federal and state laws. According to the amendment introduced by Rohrabacher-Farr, people can still use medical marijuana if:
- the state allows the marijuana use;
- it doesn’t contain THC;
- patients have a prescription for it.
To make sure you stay on the right side of the law, and avoid possible troubles, it is recommended to take the time to understand the relevant state, federal, and local laws as well as how they might impact you.
Cannabichromevarin or CBCV is a promising possibility for treatment of a wide range of diseases and conditions as well as many other cannabinoids. However, researchers still need to conduct a substantial amount of studies and trials to understand the full potential of this compound as well as its possible side effects. Health benefits, right dosage, methods of use, and many other vital issues should be carefully studied before people would be able to take this cannabinoid for their particular cases. Laws are changing, research is ongoing, and cannabis science, like a huge living organism, continues to grow, change, and develop. Medical marijuana research is expanding, and together with it, more people are realising the potential benefits of cannabis. The path of progress in the area of cannabis research is quickening, and perhaps we will soon know more about CBCV and its potential medical benefits.